Credit Derivative-Application and Use of Techniques: A credit derivative works as a shield that protects businesses, institutions, individuals or parties from the palpable risk. In finance, it can be an asset or an instrument which gets used with techniques to avert any probable mishap by transferring it through recognition. Also, it shifts the hazard involving sovereign (government) or a corporate borrower to another entity besides debtors and lenders.
The derivative is precisely a bond between two parties which is intricate and held privately. It bond by a bilateral contract.
Here, the creditor or the lender can decide to transfer the risk arising due to borrower’s fault to another party.
Unfunded Credit Derivative
It is a kind of derivative where bilateral counterparties sell and buy credit protection. Interestingly, the protection seller does not have to offer money upfront or for any event unless an unforeseen default error occurs. These contracts comply with the master agreement of ISDA. It is noticeable that such derivatives are accustomed to credit default swaps. The whole process is unfunded credit derivative.
Funded Credit Derivative
If an SPV (special purpose vehicle) or enters into a credit derivative and techniques like securitisations are used for payments in a way that financial institutions or SPV issue a debt obligation to support other obligations is the funded credit derivative.
The protection seller makes an initial settlement which helps in settling the upcoming potential credit events.
Here are a few credit derivatives that are commonly known and also used as Unfunded derivative products:
- Credit default swap options
- Total return swaps
- Credit spread forward
- Collateralised swaps obligations
- Credit default swaps
- CDX index products
- Recovery lock transaction
- Credit spread option
- Credit default swaption
- Portfolio credit default swap
Funded Credit Derivative Products
- Synthetic CPPI
- CLN (Credit linked note)
- CPDO (Constant proportion debt obligation)
- CDO (Synthetic collateralized debt obligation)
The worthiness of credits involving parties like individuals, sovereign (government) or private investors drives the prices in different cases.
Modus Operandi of Credit Derivative
If lenders, big or small or banks want to negate the possibility of borrowers defaulting on their loan repayments, then they can use credit derivatives. It can happen instead of paying a premium.
In that case, by purchasing a credit derivative, it is the duty of the third party or the transferred firm to pay the remaining amount to the lender or a bank. This possibility is in case of any defaulter. It includes the principal to the interest amount.
For example: Let’s suppose there are two parties; Party 1 and Party 2. If Party 2 borrows Euro 150,000 from Party 1 but has a history full of corrupt practices. Hence, taking that into cognisance, Party 2 imposes a clause of purchasing credit derivative before offering the loan. Now, the term strengthens Party 2 to transfer the default risk to another or a third party. However, if Party 1 does not falter, then it saves the fee amount. However, the third-party make merry by receiving the annual fee.
Credit Derivative Basics
The basis or foundation of derivatives finds its root from financial assets and instruments. It may include products like bonds, equities or stocks or securities. Their prices cling on underlying assets.
In case of a credit derivative is applicable, the derivation of rates or prices will happen from the credit risk. The underlying assets can be one or multi. It has two classifications; calls and puts.
Calls: It also offers the right to buy an underlying asset at a given price without a predetermined obligation.
Puts: It is a right with no obligation for selling an asset at a given price.
All in all, cred derivatives are insurance products. Speculators use derivatives for betting on the direction movement of underlying assets.
However, a credit derivative is not a physical asset but a contract. It is that which also allows the movement of credit risk associated with an underlying asset from one place to the other without changing the asset.
Credit Derivative Value
The valuation of a credit derivative gets measured through the quality of credit of the third party and debtor. Another party is commonly called as a counterparty.
Counterparty’s credit quality holds more value than that of a borrower for credit derivatives. If out of sheer misfortune the counterparty falters, then, in that case, the lender ends up at the losing end. But if the third party holds an upper hand in terms of better credit rating than the borrower, in that case, the borrower is the winner—the debt quality surges.
Traded Over The Counter
The trade of credit derivatives happens OTC. It implies that they are following non-standardised policies. They do not have to comply with the regulations of the SEC. The lack of a regulatory body gives rise to speculation and a contrived intent.
Boon and Bane of Credit Derivatives
- Backlogs may grow.
- Tracking it down is difficult.
- It does not offer transparency.
- Insurance against defaulters.
- Quality of loan improves.