Value Investing : Basic Guide for Beginners

Value Investing : Basic Guide for Beginners


The financial markets have various strategies to manage their investments; they analyse and research to get a basic idea of which one will make them earn profit. The relative strength index, oscillators, moving average are some of the most used trading strategies. The strategies help traders know the market entry and exit, support and resistance level and prices of the instrument traded, and many more. 

Thus, they have a significant role in the trade of the market instruments. With this article, we’ll discuss the value investing trade strategy used for a profitable trade. The investing style of the 1920s was invented by Benjamin Graham for stock trading. 

Stock trading requires the investing strategy to trade at appropriate market value and not less than stocks intrinsic or book value. Thus, traders can actively find out the stocks that are underestimated in the stock market. To know the strategy in detail and how one can use it, let’s drive in. 

Value Investing

A stock investment strategy is that the traders of the stocks pick stocks that are being traded at less value than their intrinsic price in the market. The traders of such a strategy find out the underestimated stocks and invest in them for good market returns. 

Traders believe that the market is impacted by the good and bad news around the world, and it overreacts to them. Thus, the prices of the stocks are affected; they do not respond to the fundamentals of the company. So, traders of such stocks find opportunities in the market by buying the stocks at less prices. 

Value investing strategy is used by several stock market investors such as Warren Buffett, David Dodd, Christopher Browne, etc. Many of the users of the strategy were the students of Benjamin Graham. The investors use the financial market analysis without blindly following the herd. Traders of such a strategy are long term investors with the best companies to trade with. 

Detail Analysis of Value Investing

Value investing, as the name says, strategy helps traders to save their capital by having knowledge of the correct market worth of the traded instrument. If a trader is aware of the true value of the stock in the market, then they will buy it on sale and save their money. However, it requires excellent market knowledge and understanding to find out a stock’s correct worth. 

In stock trading, the company’s stock prices keep changing with market movements even though the company’s valuation remains the same. The stocks have different market values in periods of time, sometimes high and other times low; thus, it makes the market quite volatile.  

However, that does not affect the return that traders get for their investment. The stocks are not sold for a set period of time, but they are traded in the market, which keeps fluctuating; therefore, traders need to be alert with their market investments. 

Traders of value investing work like detectives and have to be aware of the stock’s correct price and the sale of the stocks for purchase. The market value remains totally different from the discount value, which needs a lot of trade practice to use perfectly. When a trader successfully uses the value investing strategy, they buy and hold the stocks for the long term and get high profits in return. 

How does Value Investing Work? 

Traders purchase the stocks when they are undervalued or on sale in the value investing strategy. It is a simple process of trading stocks; for example, suppose when an individual goes into the market to buy electronic products and finds out that it’s a sale going on and the products are at less price. So, he’ll immediately purchase it. 

Later, when the prices of electronic products move higher and give a benefit, the individual may sell it in the market for the price it has now. Hence, enjoying a benefit from the electronic products. This is what happens in the value investing strategy. 

Similarly, investors buy the stocks at undervalued prices and wait for them to reach an intrinsic value where they can get profit and sell it in the market. Having double profits and making money easily. For this, traders and investors have to research and analyse the stock market properly to not predict wrong otherwise; they may face loss. 

In addition, traders of the strategy, in order to avoid risks of the market, use a risk management technique. They use a margin of safety to trade in stocks using the value investing strategy. The prices of stocks keep fluctuating due to various market factors. Traders have to analyse the reasons and find when the stock will reach its intrinsic value. 

The most simple example of this is of a company that trades its stocks in the market. Investors buy the shares of the company when they know that the company is performing well and in the future will be having good market capitalisation. Thus, the value of stock increases in the market. Although, traders have to check the market properly and the company’s market position before investing. 

Sometimes a good sounding company also may have low future value; therefore, the traders invest in the market with full company knowledge and their future in the trade. 

How to Calculate the Intrinsic Value?

Investors of the stock market have to precisely find out the intrinsic value of the shares traded for an advantageous trade. They cover several fields before they decide on trading for a company’s stock. For the intrinsic value, traders may look out for the following: 

  • Company’s trade history
  • Balance sheet
  • Cash flows 
  • Revenues
  • Dividends
  • Business models
  • Profits
  • Future in the market 
  • Products 
  • Expansion strategies 

Moreover, traders may go into the details of the company and why the value of stocks is undervalued, their market capacity, and total valuation. All these points are studied before a trader invests in the stocks of the firm. There are also qualitative and quantitative indicators that are referred by the investors for the trade. These include: 

  • Credit rating of the firm 
  • Involvement in any scam or fraudulent act 
  • Debt clearing capacity 
  • Profit and loss after and during the previous recession 
  • Financial metrics

A trader has to go into the good details of the company for a calculated decision and get good market returns. 

Factors Impacting the Stock Value

A stock market trader investigates the details of the company by considering the following factors of the financial needs of the company. These all have a great market impact on the business of the company: 

Earnings Before Interests and Taxes (EBIT)

Companies have several factors impacting their trade; one of them is earnings before interest and tax; traders use this to get knowledge about the cash flow of the firm. These, moreover, keep the profits and secondary expenses separate for a clear picture of the trade. 

The taxation of a firm is necessary to get an idea of the payments, their working, and the phenomena that affect the real earnings. These help traders find out the intrinsic value of the stocks of the firm. 

Price to Earnings Ratio

The P/E ratio of the firm describes the earnings per share and the share price of the company’s stock. Traders with this know the real value of the shares of the company. For example, a company has a stock value of $50, and its earning per share is $3, so the P/E ratio is 50/3, which gives 16.66. 

The P/E ratio is a signal of the metric that a trader has to pay to get one share of the company. The ratio works in contrast; if the price is high, then earning will be low, and if the price is low, then earning will be high. P/E ratio if high then trader has to pay more, therefore it should be analysed, as gives the valuation of the company. 

Discounted Cash Flow

It is a financial metric that helps traders analyse the current and future cash flow of the company. The process of doing this includes the discounted rate accounting, which provides the price level increase of the company. With this, traders can know about the company’s potential in the future and its current market position. 

So, traders know whether the stocks are overvalued or undervalued. 

Along with this, there are many other metrics that are used for the analysis of the company’s positions and its valuation. A trader can use the earnings before interests, taxes, depreciation and amortization, and the price of book value. 

Margin of Safety

The margin of safety is the value that traders decide for investing in the stocks; the market has some errors constantly occurring; therefore, they set a margin of safety to avoid the risks of the market. Therefore, the traders can have a successful investment with value investing. 

In this, the traders set a premise on which they buy the stocks at low value with better market chances. With this, they can earn profits by selling them in the market. The margin of safety helps traders lose less money in their stock trade. 

Value Investing: Advantages and Disadvantages 


A trader uses the strategy of value investing due to the various advantages it provides. Here we have mentioned the advantages of value investing for a quick understanding of the strategy: 

Minimises the Risks

The stock market is a volatile market where the fluctuations keep prices of shares moving. But, with the value investing strategy, traders can mitigate the risk; they invest in the undervalued stocks of the company. Thus, the shares reach their intrinsic value gradually or even more than that. So, traders earn potential capital gains from the trade. 

The traders use the margin of safety for the trading of stocks in value investing. If used accurately, traders earn profits from such a strategy in the stock market. 


The strategy provides the traders with substantial returns in the long term trade. With market trading, traders invest low and hold the stocks until they reach the intrinsic value; therefore, the profit is more than invested in the stocks. A trader with good stock market knowledge can earn remarkably from the trade. 

Easy to use

The value investing strategy is simple to use if a trader has been practicing the stock trade for years. They can understand the market changes, know the companies, and they can have the potential gains. 


With advantages come the disadvantages; value investing strategy has the following drawbacks: 

Long term trade

The trade of value investing is long and takes a lot of patience for investing in the stocks. Traders have to control their emotions, keep market checking and avoid small risks to have a long term benefit. Traders cannot earn shortly from the strategy; therefore, it takes time for the trader as well. 

Requires Practice

A trader has to be aware of the market before they use value investing; the market volatility makes it difficult for traders to invest. They have to analyse, research, understand the market, and practice the trade. As the trade is long term, it requires a lot of knowledge and patience for earning capital gains. 


Value investing is a strategy of the stock market that is profitable in the long run. The trader has to take out time, monitor the market, and trade instruments for high profits. The more active a trader is, the more potential returns they can achieve. The stock market is huge, and the traders can use the value investing for gaining from the undervalued stocks. 

However, the strategy requires good market knowledge, understanding, and research for better decisions and market forecasts. To fulfill this need, traders can trade with online brokers such as Investby; they have trading platforms, analysis tools, etc., to support the trade and make it an easy process. 

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